High temperature vacuum furnaces are used for heat treatment of samples at low pressure (down to 10-6 mbar) and under partial gas atmospheres. In the bottom loader version the bottom is lowered and driven out of the furnace. It then pivots forward to permit easy loading. This design makes the useable volume accessible from all sides and allows for exact
placement of the sample thermocouples which measure the temperature of the sample.
Vacuum, inert and reactive gas furnaces up to 3000 °C